# FiftyOne Brain¶

The FiftyOne Brain provides powerful machine learning techniques that are designed to transform how you curate your data from an art into a measurable science.

Note

The FiftyOne Brain is a separate Python package that is bundled with FiftyOne. Although it is closed-source, it is licensed as freeware, and you have permission to use it for commercial or non-commercial purposes. See the license for more details.

The FiftyOne Brain methods are useful across the stages of the machine learning workflow:

• Visual similarity: When constructing a dataset or training a model, have you ever wanted to find similar examples to an image or object of interest? For example, you may have found a failure case of your model and now want to search for similar scenarios in your evaluation set to diagnose the issue, or you want to mine your data lake to augment your training set to fix the issue. Use the FiftyOne Brain to index your data by visual similarity and you can easily query and sort your datasets to find similar examples, both programmatically and via point-and-click in the App.

• Uniqueness: During the training loop for a model, the best results will be seen when training on unique data. The FiftyOne Brain provides a uniqueness measure for images that compare the content of every image in a dataset with all other images. Uniqueness operates on raw images and does not require any prior annotation on the data. It is hence very useful in the early stages of the machine learning workflow when you are likely asking “What data should I select to annotate?”

• Mistakenness: Annotations mistakes create an artificial ceiling on the performance of your models. However, finding these mistakes by hand is at least as arduous as the original annotation was, especially in cases of larger datasets. The FiftyOne Brain provides a quantitative mistakenness measure to identify possible label mistakes. Mistakenness operates on labeled images and requires the logit-output of your model predictions in order to provide maximum efficacy. It also works on detection datasets to find missed objects, incorrect annotations, and localization issues.

• Hardness: While a model is training, it will learn to understand attributes of certain samples faster than others. The FiftyOne Brain provides a hardness measure that calculates how easy or difficult it is for your model to understand any given sample. Mining hard samples is a tried and true measure of mature machine learning processes. Use your current model instance to compute predictions on unlabeled samples to determine which are the most valuable to have annotated and fed back into the system as training samples, for example.

Note

Check out the tutorials page for detailed examples demonstrating the use of each Brain capability.

## Visualizing embeddings¶

The FiftyOne Brain provides a powerful compute_visualization() method that you can use to generate low-dimensional representations of the samples and/or individual objects in your datasets.

These representations can be visualized via interactive plots, which can be connected to the FiftyOne App so that when points of interest are selected in the plot, the corresponding samples/labels are automatically selected in the App, and vice versa.

Note

Interactive plots are currently only supported in Jupyter notebooks. In the meantime, you can still use FiftyOne’s plotting features in other environments, but you must manually call plot.show() to update the state of a plot to match the state of a connected Session, and any callbacks that would normally be triggered in response to interacting with a plot will not be triggered.

There are two primary components to an embedding visualization: the method used to generate the embeddings, and the dimensionality reduction method used to compute a low-dimensional representation of the embeddings.

### Embedding methods¶

The embeddings and model parameters of compute_visualization() support a variety of ways to generate embeddings for your data:

• Provide nothing, in which case a default general purpose model is used to embed your data

• Provide a Model instance or the name of any model from the model zoo that supports embeddings

• Compute your own embeddings and provide them in array form

• Provide the name of a VectorField or ArrayField of your dataset in which your embeddings are stored

### Dimensionality reduction methods¶

The method parameter of compute_visualization() allows you to specify the dimensionality reduction method to use. The supported methods are:

• "umap" (default): Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP)

• "t-sne": t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE)

• "pca": Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

Note

When you use the default UMAP method for the first time, you will be prompted to install the umap-learn package.

### Applications¶

How can embedding-based visualization of your data be used in practice? These visualizations often uncover hidden structure in you data that has important semantic meaning depending on the data you use to color/size the points.

Here are a few of the many possible applications:

• Identifying anomolous and/or visually similar examples

• Uncovering patterns in incorrect/spurious predictions

• Finding examples of target scenarios in your data lake

• Mining hard examples for your evaluation pipeline

• Recommending samples from your data lake for classes that need additional training data

• Unsupervised pre-annotation of training data

The best part about embedding visualizations is that you will likely discover more applications specific to your use case when you try it out on your data!

Note

Check out the image embeddings tutorial to see example uses of the Brain’s embeddings-powered visualization methods to uncover hidden structure in datasets.

### Image embeddings example¶

The following example gives a taste of the powers of visual embeddings in FiftyOne using the BDD100K dataset from the dataset zoo, embeddings generated by a mobilenet model from the model zoo, and the default UMAP dimensionality reduction method.

In this setup, the scatterpoints correspond to images in the validation split colored by the time of day labels provided by the BDD100K dataset. The plot is attached to an App instance, so when points are lasso-ed in the plot, the corresponding samples are automatically selected in the session’s view.

Each block in the example code below denotes a separate cell in a Jupyter notebook:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 import fiftyone as fo import fiftyone.brain as fob import fiftyone.zoo as foz # The BDD dataset must be manually downloaded. See the zoo docs for details source_dir = "/path/to/dir-with-bdd100k-files" # Load dataset dataset = foz.load_zoo_dataset( "bdd100k", split="validation", source_dir=source_dir, ) # Compute embeddings # You will likely want to run this on a machine with GPU, as this requires # running inference on 10,000 images model = foz.load_zoo_model("mobilenet-v2-imagenet-torch") embeddings = dataset.compute_embeddings(model) # Compute visualization results = fob.compute_visualization(dataset, embeddings=embeddings, seed=51) # Launch App instance session = fo.launch_app(dataset) 
  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 # Generate scatterplot plot = results.visualize( labels="timeofday.label", labels_title="time of day", axis_equal=True, ) plot.show(height=512) # Connect to session session.plots.attach(plot) 

The GIF shows the variety of insights that are revealed by running this simple protocol:

• The first cluster of points selected reveals a set of samples whose field of view is corrupted by hardware gradients at the top and bottom of the image.

• The second cluster of points reveals a set of images in rainy conditions with water droplets on the windshield.

• Hiding the primary cluster of daytime points and selecting the remaining night points reveals that the night points have incorrect labels

### Object embeddings example¶

The following example demonstrates how embeddings can be used to visualize the ground truth objects in the quickstart dataset using the compute_visualization() method’s default embeddings model and dimensionality method.

In this setup, we generate a visualization for all ground truth objects, but then we use the convenient use_view() method to restrict the visualization to only objects in a subset of the classes. The scatterpoints in the plot correspond to objects, colored by their label and sized proportionately to the object’s size. The plot is attached to an App instance, so when points are lasso-ed in the plot, the corresponding object patches are automatically selected in the session’s view.

Each block in the example code below denotes a separate cell in a Jupyter notebook:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 import fiftyone as fo import fiftyone.brain as fob import fiftyone.zoo as foz from fiftyone import ViewField as F dataset = foz.load_zoo_dataset("quickstart") # Generate visualization for ground_truth objects results = fob.compute_visualization(dataset, patches_field="ground_truth") # Get the 10 most common classes in the dataset counts = dataset.count_values("ground_truth.detections.label") classes = sorted(counts, key=counts.get, reverse=True)[:10] # Restrict visualization to the 10 most common classes view = dataset.filter_labels("ground_truth", F("label").is_in(classes)) results.use_view(view) session = fo.launch_app(dataset) 
 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 # Generate scatterplot bbox_area = F("bounding_box")[2] * F("bounding_box")[3] plot = results.visualize( labels=F("ground_truth.detections.label"), sizes=F("ground_truth.detections[]").apply(bbox_area), ) plot.show(height=800) session.plots.attach(plot) 

As you can see, the coloring and sizing of the scatterpoints allows you to discover natural clusters of objects, such as visually similar carrots, large groups of people, and small/distant people.

## Visual similarity¶

The FiftyOne Brain provides a compute_similarity() method that you can use to index the images or object patches in a dataset by visual similarity.

Once you’ve indexed a dataset by similarity, you can use the sort_by_similarity() view stage to programmatically sort your dataset by visual similarity to any image(s) or object patch(es) of your choice in your dataset. In addition, the FiftyOne App provides a convenient point-and-click interface for sorting by similarity with respect to an index you’ve computed whenever one or more images or labels are selected in the App.

The SimilarityResults object returned by compute_similarity() also provides powerful find_unique() and find_duplicates() methods that you can use to find both maximally unique and near-duplicate subsets of your datasets or their object patches. See this section for example uses.

### Embedding methods¶

Like embeddings visualization, visual similarity leverages deep embeddings to generate a visual index for a dataset.

The embeddings and model parameters of compute_similarity() support a variety of ways to generate embeddings for your data:

• Provide nothing, in which case a default general purpose model is used to index your data

• Provide a Model instance or the name of any model from the model zoo that supports embeddings

• Compute your own embeddings and provide them in array form

• Provide the name of a VectorField or ArrayField of your dataset in which your embeddings are stored

### Image similarity¶

This section demonstrates the basic workflow of indexing an image dataset by visual similarity and then using the FiftyOne App and the sort_by_similarity() view stage to query the index.

To index by images, simply pass the Dataset or DatasetView of interest to compute_similarity() and provide a name for the index via the brain_key argument.

Next, load the dataset in the App and select some image(s). Whenever there is an active selection in the App, a similarity menu icon will appear above the grid, enabling you to sort by visual similarity to your current selection. The menu will list the brain_key for all applicable similarity indexes so you can choose which index to use to perform the search. You can also optionally specify a maximum number of matches to return (k) and whether to sort in order of least similarity (reverse):

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 import fiftyone as fo import fiftyone.brain as fob import fiftyone.zoo as foz # Load dataset dataset = foz.load_zoo_dataset("quickstart") # Index images by similarity fob.compute_similarity(dataset, brain_key="image_sim") # Launch App session = fo.launch_app(dataset) # In the App... select some image(s) and use the similarity menu to sort! 

Alternatively, you can use the sort_by_similarity() view stage to programmatically construct a view that contains the sorted results:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 # Choose a random image from the dataset query_id = dataset.take(1).first().id # Programmatically construct a view containing the 15 most similar images view = dataset.sort_by_similarity(query_id, k=15, brain_key="image_sim") # View results in App session.view = view 

Note

Performing similarity search on a DatasetView will only return results from the view (if the view contains samples that were not included in the index, they will never be included in the result).

This means that you can index an entire Dataset once and then perform searches on subsets of the dataset by constructing views that contain the images of interest.

Note

For large datasets, you may notice longer load times the first time you use a similarity index in a session. Subsequent similarity searches will use cached results and will be faster!

### Object similarity¶

This section demonstrates the basic workflow of indexing a dataset of objects by visual similarity and then using the FiftyOne App and the sort_by_similarity() view stage to query the index.

You can index any objects stored on datasets in Detection, Detections, Polyline, or Polylines format. See this section for more information about adding labels to your datasets.

To index by object patches, simply pass the Dataset or DatasetView of interest to compute_similarity() along with the name of the patches field and a name for the index via the brain_key argument.

Next, load the dataset in the App and switch to object patches view by clicking the patches icon above the grid and choosing the label field of interest from the dropdown. Now, whenever you have selected one or more patches in the App, a similarity menu icon will appear above the grid, enabling you to sort by visual similarity to your current selection. The menu will list the brain_key for all applicable similarity indexes so you can choose which index to use to perform the search. You can also optionally specify a maximum number of matches to return (k) and whether to sort in order of least similarity (reverse):

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 import fiftyone as fo import fiftyone.brain as fob import fiftyone.zoo as foz # Load dataset dataset = foz.load_zoo_dataset("quickstart") # Index ground truth objects by similarity fob.compute_similarity( dataset, patches_field="ground_truth", brain_key="gt_sim" ) # Launch App session = fo.launch_app(dataset) # In the App... convert to ground truth patches view, select some patch(es), # and use the similarity menu to sort! 

Alternatively, you can directly use the sort_by_similarity() view stage to programmatically construct a view that contains the sorted results:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 # Convert to patches view patches = dataset.to_patches("ground_truth") # Choose a random patch object from the dataset query_id = patches.take(1).first().id # Programmatically construct a view containing the 15 most similar objects view = patches.sort_by_similarity(query_id, k=15, brain_key="gt_sim") # View results in App session.view = view 

Note

Performing similarity search on a DatasetView will only return results from the view (if the view contains objects that were not included in the index, they will never be included in the result).

This means that you can index an entire Dataset once and then perform searches on subsets of the dataset by constructing views that contain the objects of interest.

Note

For large datasets, you may notice longer load times the first time you use a similarity index in a session. Subsequent similarity searches will use cached results and will be faster!

### Applications¶

How can visual simiarlity be used in practice? A common pattern is to mine your dataset for similar examples to certain images or object patches of interest, e.g., those that represent failure modes of a model that need to be studied in more detail or underrepresented classes that need more training examples.

Here are a few of the many possible applications:

• Identifying failure patterns of a model

• Finding examples of target scenarios in your data lake

• Mining hard examples for your evaluation pipeline

• Recommending samples from your data lake for classes that need additional training data

• Pruning near-duplicate images from your training dataset

### CIFAR-10 example¶

The following example demonstrates two common workflows that you can perform using a similarity index generated via compute_similarity() on the CIFAR-10 dataset:

• Selecting a set of maximally unique images from the dataset

• Identifying near-duplicate images in the dataset

 1 2 3 4 5 import fiftyone as fo import fiftyone.zoo as foz dataset = foz.load_zoo_dataset("cifar10", split="test") print(dataset) 

To proceed, we first need some suitable image embeddings for the dataset. Although the compute_similarity() and compute_visualization() methods are equipped with a default general-purpose model to generate embeddings if none are provided, you’ll typically find higher-quality insights when a domain-specific model is used to generate embeddings.

In this case, we’ll use a classifier that has been fine-tuned on CIFAR-10 to compute some embeddings and then generate image similarity/visualization indexes for them:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 import fiftyone.brain as fob import fiftyone.brain.internal.models as fbm # Compute embeddings via a pre-trained CIFAR-10 classifier model = fbm.load_model("simple-resnet-cifar10") embeddings = dataset.compute_embeddings(model, batch_size=16) # Generate similarity index results = fob.compute_similarity( dataset, embeddings=embeddings, brain_key="img_sim" ) # Generate a 2D visualization viz_results = fob.compute_visualization( dataset, embeddings=embeddings, brain_key="img_viz" ) 

#### Finding maximally unique images¶

With a similarity index generated, we can use the find_unique() method of the index to identify a set of images of any desired size that are maximally unique with respect to each other:

 1 2 3 # Use the similarity index to identify 500 maximally unique images results.find_unique(500) print(results.unique_ids[:5]) 

We can also conveniently visualize the results of this operation via the visualize_unique() method of the results object, which generates a scatterplot with the unique images colored separately:

 1 2 3 # Visualize the unique images in embeddings space plot = results.visualize_unique(visualization=viz_results) plot.show(height=800, yaxis_scaleanchor="x") 

And of course we can load a view containing the unique images in the App to explore the results in detail:

 1 2 3 # Visualize the unique images in the App unique_view = dataset.select(results.unique_ids) session = fo.launch_app(view=unique_view) 

#### Finding near-duplicate images¶

We can also use our similarity index to detect near-duplicate images in the dataset.

For example, let’s use the find_duplicates() method to identify the least visually similar images in our dataset:

 1 2 3 4 5 # Use the similarity index to identify the 1% of images that are least # visually similar w.r.t. the other images results.find_duplicates(fraction=0.01) print(results.neighbors_map) 

Note

You can also provide a specific embeddings distance threshold to find_duplicates(), in which case the non-duplicate set will be the (approximately) largest set such that all pairwise distances between non-duplicate images are greater than this threshold.

The neighbors_map property of the results object provides a data structure that summarizes the findings. The keys of the dictionary are the sample IDs of each nearest non-duplicate image, and the values are lists of (id, distance) tuples listing the sample IDs of the duplicate images for each in-sample image together with the embedding distance between the two images:

{
'61143408db40df926c571a6b': [
('61143409db40df926c573075', 5.667297674385298),
('61143408db40df926c572ab6', 6.231051661334058)
],
'6114340cdb40df926c577f2a': [
('61143408db40df926c572b54', 6.042934361555487)
],
'61143408db40df926c572aa3': [
('6114340bdb40df926c5772e9', 5.88984758067434),
('61143408db40df926c572b64', 6.063986454046798),
('61143409db40df926c574571', 6.10303338363576),
],
...
}


We can conveniently visualize this information in the App via the duplicates_view() method of the results object, which constructs a view with the duplicate images arranged directly after their corresponding nearest in-sample image, with additional sample fields recording the type and nearest in-sample ID/distance for each image:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 duplicates_view = results.duplicates_view( type_field="dup_type", id_field="dup_id", dist_field="dup_dist", ) session.view = duplicates_view 

## Image uniqueness¶

The FiftyOne Brain allows for the computation of the uniqueness of an image, in comparison with other images in a dataset; it does so without requiring any model from you. One good use of uniqueness is in the early stages of the machine learning workflow when you are deciding what subset of data with which to bootstrap your models. Unique samples are vital in creating training batches that help your model learn as efficiently and effectively as possible.

The uniqueness of a Dataset can be computed directly without need the predictions of a pre-trained model via the compute_uniqueness() method:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 import fiftyone as fo import fiftyone.brain as fob dataset = fo.load_dataset(...) fob.compute_uniqueness(dataset) 

Input: An unlabeled (or labeled) image dataset. There are recipes for building datasets from a wide variety of image formats, ranging from a simple directory of images to complicated dataset structures like COCO.

Note

Did you know? Instead of using FiftyOne’s default model to generate embeddings, you can provide your own embeddings or specify a model from the Model Zoo to use to generate embeddings via the optional embeddings and model argument to compute_uniqueness().

Output: A scalar-valued uniqueness field is populated on each sample that ranks the uniqueness of that sample (higher value means more unique). The uniqueness values for a dataset are normalized to [0, 1], with the most unique sample in the collection having a uniqueness value of 1.

You can customize the name of this field by passing the optional uniqueness_field argument to compute_uniqueness().

What to expect: Uniqueness uses a tuned algorithm that measures the distribution of each Sample in the Dataset. Using this distribution, it ranks each sample based on its relative similarity to other samples. Those that are close to other samples are not unique whereas those that are far from most other samples are more unique.

Note

Did you know? You can specify a region of interest within each image to use to compute uniqueness by providing the optional roi_field argument to compute_uniqueness(), which contains Detections or Polylines that define the ROI for each sample.

Note

Check out the uniqueness tutorial to see an example use case of the Brain’s uniqueness method to detect near-duplicate images in a dataset.

## Label mistakes¶

Label mistakes can be calculated for both classification and detection datasets.

Correct annotations are crucial in developing high performing models. Using the FiftyOne Brain and the predictions of a pre-trained model, you can identify possible labels mistakes in Classification fields of your dataset via the compute_mistakenness() method:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 import fiftyone as fo import fiftyone.brain as fob dataset = fo.load_dataset(...) fob.compute_mistakenness( dataset, "predictions", label_field="ground_truth" ) 

Input: Label mistakes operate on samples for which there are both human annotations ("ground_truth" above) and model predictions ("predictions" above).

Output: A float mistakenness field is populated on each sample that ranks the chance that the human annotation is mistaken. You can customize the name of this field by passing the optional mistakenness_field argument to compute_mistakenness().

What to expect: Finding mistakes in human annotations is non-trivial (if it could be done perfectly then the approach would sufficiently replace your prediction model!) The FiftyOne Brain uses a proprietary scoring model that ranks samples for which your prediction model is highly confident but wrong (according to the human annotation label) as a high chance of being a mistake.

Note

Check out the label mistakes tutorial to see an example use case of the Brain’s mistakenness method on a classification dataset.

Correct annotations are crucial in developing high performing models. Using the FiftyOne Brain and the predictions of a pre-trained model, you can identify possible labels mistakes in Detections fields of your dataset via the compute_mistakenness() method:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 import fiftyone as fo import fiftyone.brain as fob dataset = fo.load_dataset(...) fob.compute_mistakenness( dataset, "predictions", label_field="ground_truth" ) 

Input: You can compute label mistakes on samples for which there are both human annotations ("ground_truth" above) and model predictions ("predictions" above).

Output: New fields on both the detections in label_field and the samples will be populated:

Detection-level fields:

• mistakenness (float): Objects in label_field that matched with a prediction have their mistakenness field populated with a measure of the likelihood that the ground truth annotation is a mistake.

• mistakenness_loc (float): Objects in label_field that matched with a prediction have their mistakenness_loc field populated with a measure of the mistakenness in the localization (bounding box) of the ground truth annotation.

• possible_missing (bool): If there are predicted objects with no matches in label_field but which are deemed to be likely correct annotations, these objects will have their possible_missing attribute set to True. In addition, if you pass the optional copy_missing=True flag to compute_mistakenness(), then these objects will be copied into label_field.

• possible_spurious (bool): Objects in label_field that were not matched with a prediction and deemed to be likely spurious annotations will have their possible_spurious field set to True.

Sample-level fields:

• mistakenness (float): The maximum mistakenness of an object in the label_field of the sample.

• possible_missing (int): The number of objects that were added to the label_field of the sample and marked as likely missing annotations.

• possible_spurious (int): The number of objects in the label_field of the sample that were deemed to be likely spurious annotations.

You can customize the names of these fields by passing optional arguments to compute_mistakenness().

What to expect: Finding mistakes in human annotations is non-trivial (if it could be done perfectly then the approach would sufficiently replace your prediction model!) The FiftyOne Brain uses a proprietary scoring model that ranks detections for which your prediction model is highly confident but wrong (according to the human annotation label) as a high chance of being a mistake.

Note

Check out the detection mistakes tutorials to see an example use case of the Brain’s mistakenness method on a detection dataset.

## Sample hardness¶

During training, it is useful to identify samples that are more difficult for a model to learn so that training can be more focused around these hard samples. These hard samples are also useful as seeds when considering what other new samples to add to a training dataset.

In order to compute hardness, all you need to do is add your model predictions and their logits to your FiftyOne Dataset and then run the compute_hardness() method:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 import fiftyone as fo import fiftyone.brain as fob dataset = fo.load_dataset(...) fob.compute_hardness(dataset, "predictions") 

Input: A Dataset or DatasetView on which predictions have been computed and are stored in the "predictions" argument. Ground truth annotations are not required for hardness.

Output: A scalar-valued hardness field is populated on each sample that ranks the hardness of the sample. You can customize the name of this field via the hardness_field argument of compute_hardness().

What to expect: Hardness is computed in the context of a prediction model. The FiftyOne Brain hardness measure defines hard samples as those for which the prediction model is unsure about what label to assign. This measure incorporates prediction confidence and logits in a tuned model that has demonstrated empirical value in many model training exercises.

Note

Check out the classification evaluation tutorial to see example uses of the Brain’s hardness method to uncover annotation mistakes in a dataset.

## Managing brain runs¶

When you run a brain method on a dataset, the run is recorded on the dataset, allowing you to retrive information about it later, delete it (along with any modifications to your dataset that were performed by it), or even retrieve the view into your dataset that you processed.

Brain method runs can be accessed later by their brain_key:

The compute_visualization() method accepts a brain_key parameter that specifies the brain key under which to store the results of the visualization.

The compute_similarity() method accepts an optional brain_key parameter that specifies the brain key under which to store the similarity index.

The brain key of uniqueness runs is the value of the uniqueness_field passed to compute_uniqueness().

The brain key of mistakenness runs is the value of the mistakenness_field passed to compute_mistakenness().

The brain key of hardness runs is the value of the hardness_field passed to compute_hardness().

The example below demonstrates the basic interface:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 import fiftyone as fo import fiftyone.brain as fob import fiftyone.zoo as foz dataset = foz.load_zoo_dataset("quickstart") view = dataset.take(100) # Run a brain method that returns results results = fob.compute_visualization(view, brain_key="visualization") # Run a brain method that populates a new sample field on the dataset fob.compute_uniqueness(view) # List the brain methods that have been run print(dataset.list_brain_runs()) # ['visualization', 'uniqueness'] # Print information about a brain run print(dataset.get_brain_info("visualization")) # Load the results of a previous brain run also_results = dataset.load_brain_results("visualization") # Load the view on which a brain run was performed same_view = dataset.load_brain_view("visualization") # Delete brain runs # This will delete any stored results and fields that were populated dataset.delete_brain_run("visualization") dataset.delete_brain_run("uniqueness")